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While condensed matter seeks to understand the physical behavior of many body system and discover new practical uses of these systems, a number of systems can be shown to yield the physics that many of the high energy experiments are seeking to discover. In this paper, the authors show how certain exotic oxides give rise to effective magnetic monopoles. While the magnetic charge of the entire system remains neutral, the interactions between spin moments allow for magnetic charges to become separated within the crystal. The authors justify this claim on grounds of well understood and accepted models for magnetic interactions (the Ising model and dipole interactions). After this they further explain how a particular crystal arrangement leads to the dominant interactions being analogous to water ice and predict the magnitude of the effective magnetic charge which results. Finally they provide ideas of how these magnetic monopoles can be physically measured. Of particular importance is the emergence of a first order phase transition below a certain critical temperature.
Q: How is it that this type of effect (strings of dipoles) causes domain walls to form in most materials & not in this lattice structure?
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